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A NEW KIND OF TOURISM - SLUM SAFARIS

Visiting foreign countries can lead to many vivid experiences but now there is a new kind to which many tourists are signing up to - slum safaris. In Nairobi, capital of Kenya, three former street kids have come up with their own walking tour which includes crossing fetid rivers, visiting ramshackle houses, spots for the easiest muggings and stopping off at glue bars to chat to glazed-eyed customers. Also confronted are numerous homeless street urchins, many begging by the roadside who, if they fail, stand or fall on their own ability and determination to survive. It is estimated that there are 60,000 hungry and homeless street kids living in Nairobi - a damning statistic in a country where politicians are more concerned with amassing great wealth rather than looking after the needs of their peoples. The three former street kids who set up the venture are now doing very well and should be congratulated in finding a successful business opportunity. As for Uhuru Kenyatta and his government - they should be ashamed.

THE GREATEST CHALLENGE FACING HUMANKIND!

Horst Kohler, former managing-director of the International Monetary Fund, on his inauguration as president of Germany on 1 July 2004 said that 'civilisation will be judged on how Africa develops in the coming years'. In the interim 15 years civilisation (and African leaders) continue to fail this test. Why?

There is no reason why Africans cannot look forward to improved living conditions for according to President John F Kennedy, in his inaugural address in 1961, 'man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty'.

Not only that but former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair is on record as saying that 'as a result of the experience of the last 50 years in global governance there is ample evidence from around the world as to what works and what doesn't. The tough part is not knowing what to do, but doing it.' (Tony Blair's 7 key aims for government and leadership can be found below.)

And that is the BIG challenge confronting 'civilisation' today - actually being able to persuade African governments to be proactive and do something about the perilous predicament that people across most of the continent find themselves in. For today too many Africans are still:-

prostrated by pestilence,
perturbed by poor education,
paralysed by a paucity of provender,
parched by a lack of potable water,
persecuted by predatory plutocracies,
passed over by prejudice,
plundered by parasitic parliaments,
perpetuated in poverty.

A plight that should not be permitted.

But how can civilisation (presumably developed countries) make an impact on an impoverished continent when the interference in the internal affairs of other countries is most likely to be taken as racism or neo-colonialism? That is the challenging question. However, there is a way to start to help Africans and without confrontation.

For just1WORLD's prescription see 'RECOMMENDATIONS'

New GLOBAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY INDEX (MPI)

This index jointly developed by the United Nations Development Programme and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative gives data for 101 countries covering 76% of the global population. The index aims to shine light on the number of people experiencing poverty at regional, national and sub-national levels, and reveal inequalities across countries and among the poor themselves. The MPI provides a comprehensive and in-depth picture of global poverty looking beyond income to understand how people experience poverty in multiple ways. It tries to identify how people are left behind across 3 key dimensions: health, education and standard of living, using 10 indicators. People who experience deprivation in at least one third of these weighted indicators fall into the category of multidimensionally poor.
HEALTH: NUTRITION 1/6; CHILD MORTALITY 1/6
EDUCATION: YEARS OF SCHOOLING 1/6: SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 1/6
STANDARD OF LIVING: COOKING FUEL 1/18: SANITATION 1/18: DRINKING WATER 1/18: ELECTRICITY 1/18: HOUSING 1/18: ASSETS 1/18.

From these calculations the countries with the largest percentage of the population living in multidimensional poverty are:-
SOUTH SUDAN 91, NIGER 90, CHAD 85, BURKINA FASO 83, ETHIOPIA 83
C.A.R. 79, MALI 78, MADAGASCAR 77, BURUNDI 74, D.R.C. 74, MOZAMBIQUE 72
GUINEA-BISSAU 67, BENIN 66, LIBERIA 62, GUINEA 61.

Nigeria (population 190,000,000) has now succeeded India (population 1,339,000,000) in hosting the largest number of poor people in the world.

It is ridiculous and iniquitous that leaders of those countries still cannot find the road to prosperity after 60 years of independence. They plainly lack any consideration whatsoever in striving to improve the lot of their people and they and the African Union should feel embarrassed and ashamed. This is in sharp focus to the to the story below.

PAUL KAGAME, PRESIDENT OF RWANDA, AND THE COUNTRY'S FUTURE

Addressing a meeting of 2,000 leaders from across Rwanda, President Paul Kagame told them that 'integrity, competence, willingness to learn and having a sense of purpose on what they want to achieve for the common good are virtues that all impactful leaders must embrace.' He was joined on the platform by Pastor Rick Warren, the American evangelist, who himself 'urged leaders to always have a dream of what they want to achieve, to take action to implement it and to constantly learn about how to improve what they are doing. The moment you stop learning you will stop leading.' The forum comprised 300 government officials, 300 business leaders and 1,200 church leaders. Pastor Warren then went on to 'urge leaders in all three sectors to always consult each other and work together to improve their services to the people.'

Surely one of the most positive and constructive gatherings to be held anywhere in Africa which shows Paul Kagame's leadership really is changing lives in Rwanda. Which begs the question as to why he has to resort to allowing serious civil and political rights violations according to a recent EU report with critics being allegedly killed, physically attacked, jailed or forced into exile. Sadly, it seems, you can never really have true success stories coming out of Africa.

RICHEST 1% OF AFRICANS OWN MORE THAN OTHER 99%

According to Oxfam, the international aid charity, inequality is at crisis levels in west Africa where the wealthiest 1% own more than everyone else in the region combined. It goes on to say that the combined wealth of Nigeria's 5 richest men - US$29.9bn/£24bn - is more than the government budget in a country where Oxfam estimate that 69% of Nigerians are living below the poverty line. The least committed countries to reducing this inequality are Nigeria, Niger and Sierra Leone whilst the report found that the 3 most determined were Cape Verde, Mauritania and Senegal. To address this problem Oxfam suggests that west African governments should promote progressive taxation, boost social spending, strengthen labour market protection, invest in agriculture and seek land rights for smallholder farmers.

WORLD POVERTY CLOCK

The World Poverty Clock - https://worldpoverty.io - is a wonderful way to watch those escaping poverty, second by second, by running away from it. Sadly it also shows those running into it and in which country, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. The serious side to it is that the UN Millennium Development Goal of ending extreme poverty by 2030 is way off track already. But with 17 goals and 169 targets perhaps that is not surprising!

SOUTH AFRICA - THE KLEPTOCRATIC UNION

Ordinary South Africans may have rejoiced at the fall from favour of Jacob Zuma but the size of corruption unearthed on his watch is horrifying. Eskom, the state electricity provider, is all but bankrupt as directors and senior managers pillaged its accounts. To compensate electricity rates are about to power ahead hurting the poorest hardest. The head of the country's tax collecting ministry, Tom Moyane, has been suspended and accused of blocking bribery investigations and giving secret bonuses to cronies. The Guptas, a wealthy Indian family, are accused of bribing tax officials under Zuma which resulted in huge profits. The former boss of Transnet, the national rail freight carrier, is accused of inflating the cost of buying 1,000 trains by almost US$1.2bn before awarding the contract to a Gupta-linked enterprise. At the same time vast amounts of money have been illicitly siphoned off budgets for schools, hospitals, housing projects and roads leaving patients without beds and medicines, schools without teachers and books, people without water and roads without maintenance. How could South Africans allow such a man to run Mandela's country into the ground for so long? But it is not just the case in South Africa: corruption pervades almost every African nation on a colossal scale as decadence and depravity take precedence over the general well-being of their peoples. And the western world response to this feckless rule - shamefully total apathy.

TONY BLAIR'S 7 KEY AIMS OF LEADERSHIP

Speaking at a meeting in Addis Adaba in Ethiopia recently, former UK prime minister Tony Blair laid down a list of 7 aims for leadership and government in Africa:-

1) all out effort in education so that youngsters gain the knowledge which should offer them the opportunity to achieve their ambitions.
2) need to keep an open mind when it comes to decision-making. Closed minds are what holds governments and countries back.
3) there should be no divisions and no prejudice. The aim should always be to work together. People always make mistakes but the thing is to learn from them and not blame others.
4) there are two types of advisers - the doers and the commentators. The former get things done whilst he latter just criticise. Don't be afraid of criticism but take responsibility for your own decisions.
5) build up a reliable team that can be trusted. Look for quality people.
6) always set out to help those less fortunate. The greatest satisfaction comes from being of service to others.
7) it is an honour and privilege to serve your country and encourage others by always being optimistic.

AFRICA LOSES US$148bn TO CORRUPTION EVERY YEAR.

A report by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) has found that Africa is losing annually US$148bn, equal to 25% of Africa's GDP, to the scourge of corruption. The continent loses US$65bn a year from illicit financial flows through a combination of transfer pricing, fake invoicing and corrupt border guards. UNECA also suggests that the continent has lost over US$1 trillion in the last 50 years. Annual ODA received by sub-Saharan Africa is calculated at US$46bn meaning that the continent is in net deficit every year to the tune of almost US$100bn. And this in a part of the world where 40% of the people daily eke out an existence below the poverty line. It is little wonder then that so many mainly younger people want to move north to look for ways of reaching the land of milk and honey which is Europe and the EU

TEACHERS FAIL TO MAKE THE GRADE

Thousands of primary school teachers in Kaduna in North Nigeria are to be sacked after failing exams they set their 6 year old pupils. Speaking at a meeting with the World Bank in the state capital, Nasir El-Rufai, the state governor said that 21,780 teachers, two-thirds of the total, had failed to score 75% or more in an examination taken by their pupils. He promised to replace them with 25,000 new teachers. Evidently, in the past, the hiring of teachers was politicised but now the aim will be to bring in young qualified teachers to redress any imbalance. He also said the teacher-pupil ratio will also need to be confronted for in some cases the ratio is 1:100.

PROGRESS ON UN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IS FALTERING

In a survey by the Thomson Reuters Foundation for the UN the ambitious goals aimed at ending poverty and inequality by 2030 are seen as moving more slowly than expected and would struggle to get UN approval today. The survey asked policymakers, campaigners and professionals with an interest in the Sustainable Development Goals how they viewed the progress of the blue print of 17 goals and 169 targets that unanimously won support 4 years ago from all 193 UN member states. The long detailed agenda is a global to-do list on such issues as ending hunger and poverty, achieving gender equality and ensuring quality education for all which in total would require an estimated US$3 trillion to be invested annually for success. But the online poll conducted between July and September 2018 found two-thirds of the respondents saying that progress on the aims was slower than anticipated with half hinting that they were not confident that they could be met by 2030. This huge list of goals and targets was far too ambitious right from the start and was always going to be impossible to reach even had there been proper funding. So this should come as no surprise.

AN AFRICAN BRIGHT SPOT

Ever since the the 1987 the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Championships in Rome, men born and raised in Kenya or Ethiopia have won 72% of the medals on offer in the 10,000m; 5,000m and 3,000m steeplechase. For cultural reasons, women took a little longer to assert their dominance, but since the 1999 World championships in Seville, Kenyan and Ethiopian women have won an amazing 81% of medals offered in the 10,000 m and 5,000m. So what is the secret of this astonishing success?

According to Adharanand Finn, an editor on the Guardian newspaper, there are several factors which have come together for this perfect storm. In rural areas of the high altitude Rift Valley, in both Kenya and Ethiopia, children grow up leading active lives running to and from school and doing chores, often in bare feet. All of which is supplemented by a diet rich in rice, beans, maize and kale.

These conditions aren't unique to Ethiopia and Kenya, but what is singular to this part of east Africa is a culture that embraces running as a viable life option. Parents will support children wanting to run whilst other runners will pass on shoes, clothing and advice. And kids also see it as a way out of poverty as running is often the only show in town. Coaching, encouragement, passion and a will to win also lie here in abundance in a land full of opportunity for distance runners.

Middle-distance running then is an amazing African success story which has lasted more than 30 years. In this time, though, running successful governments in these 2 countries, like so many others in Africa, has proved more elusive. And that is why the number of Africans living in extreme poverty has increased by 100 million in the last 30 years, according to the World Bank. Too many governments in Africa, it seems, are running on borrowed time!

WORLD'S MOST RESPECTED PERSONS

Forget politicians like Barack Obama, Angela Merkel and Emmanuel Macron for the world's most respected persons today must surely be Bill and Melinda Gates. Together in 2000 they set up the Gates Foundation which focuses on improving people's health and wellbeing, expanding educational opportunities and helping individuals lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty in the developing world. Together and separately, for the last decade, they have travelled the world talking to HIV positive prostitutes, trying to eradicate diseases such as polio and tuberculosis, chivvying leaders of rich countries to increase their overseas aid budgets whilst encouraging governments in developing countries to start to get their act together especially on health matters. The largest area for investment has always been health with large sums given over to control infectious diseases, malaria and TB. Massive sums have also been made available to supply condoms to women so that they should not be forced to get pregnant over and over again. In this way women gain control over their bodies and they will make different choices that will effect not only their families but their communities and, in time, their countries. Organisations receiving the most funding from the Gates Foundation are GAVI Alliance, the public-private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunisation in poor countries; World Health Organisation and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. To date Bill Gates has donated over US$30bn to the foundation. Few people have ever been in the position to change the world but in the case of Bill Gates he has not only done it once (with Microsoft) but twice. And Africa and the developing world owe him and his wife a huge debt of gratitude.

TOWARDS A MORE DYNAMIC UNITED NATIONS

According to Dag Hammarskjold, the second United Nations (UN) secretary-general, the UN was not set up to take the world to heaven but to save it from hell. And in the 70+ years since 1945, with just a few worrying moments, this has certainly been the case. However, although no third world war has broken out in the intervening years there have been numerous occasions when countries have turned in on themselves leading, in many instances, to mass genocide. And the UN has stood by unable or unwilling to intervene. This cannot any longer be acceptable for civil war all too often is calamitous leading to mass destruction and killings which push peoples over borders into neighbouring countries which then have to deal with the problem.

Syria is a case in point. When the Arab Spring was unleashed in 2011 opposition to President Bashar Al-Assad mounted and the country soon found itself with a dictator who would stop at nothing to stay in power. And then Russia entered the war on Assad's side. Since then many towns and cities have become devastated battlegrounds where innocent men, women and children have had to withstand cluster bombs, chemical weapons, massacres and rape on an apocalyptic scale with an estimated 300,000 losing their lives. At the same time, out of a population of 20,000,000, 4,800,000 have fled to neighbouring countries whilst 8,000,000 have been internally displaced creating the worst refugee crisis since the end of the Second World War.

And now there is Yemen where misery is being heaped upon misery in that decrepit land. Here the people are crying out for help and, apart from some brave and determined international aid organisations, the world stands idly by on the sidelines as Saudi Arabia and Iran fight a proxy war.

Civil wars like this cannot be tolerated any longer and a solution needs to be urgently sought.

This is easier said than done, of course, in an organisation where, in matters regarding the peace and security of nations, the veto in the UN Security Council by any of the Permanent Members (China, Russia, US, UK, France) means that intervention is difficult if at all. So a way round this situation needs to be found. One way to do this would be to continue to allow Security Council members the use the veto but, if any do and then the UN General Assembly votes by a 2/3rds majority to null that veto, then the UN can intervene in the affairs of a country enduring civil war.

If this had been in place in 2011 a sizeable UN force calling on both sides to lay down their arms may have made a difference in Syria. And in the intervening ceasefire a government of national unity could have been set up at the insistence of the UN. And any party unwilling to accept such a proposal would have been isolated and forced out.

The same result for Yemen would have saved the lives and suffering of countless innocent people allowing a government of national unity to be set up under the authority of an independent UN governor.

PANAMA PAPERS

The leaked papers made public by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists in early April, 2016 connects thousands of prominent figures to secretive offshore companies in 21 tax havens around the world, and reveal the opaque workings of the offshore finance industry. The documents focus on the Panamanian law firm, Mossack Fonseca, with its 210,000 clients, and has led to allegations that the firm aided public officials and multinational corporations to avoid taxes. Mossack Fonseca deny this.
According to Craig Fagan, Senior Policy Co-ordinator at Transparency International, 'this is just the tip of the iceberg and you can be certain that there are many other law firms in places like even London, Hong Kong, Miami and New York that are operating similar structures.'
At the same time Oxfam claims there is at least US$18 trillion hidden in tax havens across the globe with two-thirds of this offshore wealth hidden in European Union related tax havens. The charity also suggests that between US$100bn - US$160bn is lost to developing countries every year through tax dodging by multinationals.

 
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